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A prescription drug for the treatment of pediatric GERD(Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease)

 

 


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What is GERD?                                                                                                                   GERD stands for GastroEsophageal Reflux Disease. It is also called acid reflux. Reflux means to “flow back”. So with GERD the liquid contents of the stomach flow back or reflux into the esophagus. This is the tube that starts at the back of the mouth and carries food down to the stomach. GERD can sometimes cause a burning feeling in the chest. Some people call it heartburn, upset stomach, or “gas.”

The symptoms of GERD may include but are not limited to:

  • Frequent heartburn
  • Chest pain
  • Belching acid into the mouth
  • Stomach contents going up into the  mouth
  • Spitting up
  • Trouble swallowing 

Other conditions may cause similar symptoms, so your doctor will need to diagnose whether or not you have GERD.

Who gets it?                                                                                                                        GERD does not just happen to adults. Almost 1 in 4 children also suffer from it. And many adults and youngsters do not even know that they have it.

How does it happen?                                                                                                           There is a muscular ring between the esophagus and the stomach. It helps keep the partly digested, liquid food from backing up into the esophagus. When this ring is not working as it should, the contents of the stomach flow back into the esophagus.

Why can it hurt?                                                                                                                     The acids in the stomach are there to help digest what your child east and drinks. They belong in the stomach and nowhere else! That is why they can cause a burning feeling when they get into the esophagus.

What harm can it do?                                                                                                            If untreated, GERD can do a lot of damage. Above all, to your child’s throat. GERD can cause swelling that may turn into ulcers and even cancer in the worst cases.

Help your child cope with GERD by helping change habits that may make GERD worse:

  • Do not serve spicy, tomato-based fatty foods, or foods with lots of acid. This includes chocolate, citrus fruits, or citrus juices. These things can make the muscle in the esophagus relax. That, in turn, will allow stomach acid to back up where it does not belong.
 
  • If your child is a teen, ask him or her to stay away from drinks with caffeine for the same reason. This includes coffee, tea and colas. And of course alcohol is strictly off-limits!
 
  • Do all you can to help your child stay fit. Being too heavy can increase the pressure in the stomach-and that may worsen reflux.
 
  • Try not to serve heavy meals. Lighter meals are better for children with GERD.
 
  • Encourage your child to exercise. But not right after eating.
 
  • Don’t let him or her snack before bedtime. It is better to allow 3 to 4 hours between eating and sleeping.
 
  • Do not allow smoking in your house. Nothing could be worse for a child with GERD.
 
  • If your doctor agrees, make sure your child sleeps with the head of the bed raised.
 
  • Chewing sugarless gum is OK for the older child. It increases saliva, which helps fight any acid in the esophagus!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Click here for full prescribing information

 

In pediatric patients AXID Oral Solution is indicated for ages 12 years and older. AXID Oral Solution is indicated for up to 8 weeks for the treatment of endoscopically diagnosed esophagitis, including erosive and ulcerative esophagitis, and associated heartburn due to GERD.

The most common adverse events (>5%) in controlled clinical trials with pediatric patients were pyrexia, nasopharyngitis, diarrhea, vomiting, irritability, nasal congestion, and cough. In controlled clinical trials with adults, anemia (0.2% vs 0%) and urticaria (0.5% vs 0.1%) were significantly more common in the nizatidine group than with placebo. The following treatment-emergent AEs occurred in controlled clinical trials with nizatidine vs placebo in adults: headache (16.6% vs 15.6%), diarrhea (7.2% vs 6.9%), dizziness (4.6% vs 3.8%), and rhinitis (9.8% vs 9.6%).

Symptomatic response to nizatidine therapy does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. Pharmacokinetic studies in patients with hepatorenal syndrome have not been done. Part of the dose of nizatidine is metabolized in the liver. AXID Oral Solution is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug. Because cross sensitivity in this class of components has been observed, H2RAs, including nizatidine, should not be administered to patients with a history of hypersensitivity to other H2RAs. Dosage should be reduced in patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency including some elderly patients with decreased creatinine clearance.

References: 1. Zantac Syrup full prescribing information. 2. AXID Oral Solution full prescribing information. 3. Pediatric Gastroesophageal Reflux. Clinical Practice Guideline Summary. Available at: http://www.cdhnf.org/pdf/GERD_8_pg_brochure_031103.pdf.  Accessed September 3, 2004.

Zantac is a registered trademark of GlaxoSmithKline.